A Review of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on the Auditory System There are an increasing number of large-scale studies on the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hearing loss; these studies include both HIV-infected adults from horizontal disease transmission to HIV-infected children from vertical disease transmission in utero. With advances in HIV treatment approaches, this disease has become a chronic ... Article
Article  |   November 01, 2015
A Review of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on the Auditory System
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Peter Torre, III
    School of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA
  • Financial Disclosure: Peter Torre, III is an associate professor at San Diego State University.
    Financial Disclosure: Peter Torre, III is an associate professor at San Diego State University.×
  • Nonfinancial Disclosure: Peter Torre, III has no nonfinancial interests related to the content of this article.
    Nonfinancial Disclosure: Peter Torre, III has no nonfinancial interests related to the content of this article.×
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Hearing Disorders / Articles
Article   |   November 01, 2015
A Review of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on the Auditory System
SIG 6 Perspectives on Hearing and Hearing Disorders: Research and Diagnostics, November 2015, Vol. 19, 55-63. doi:10.1044/hhd19.2.55
History: Received August 5, 2015 , Revised September 14, 2015 , Accepted September 22, 2015
SIG 6 Perspectives on Hearing and Hearing Disorders: Research and Diagnostics, November 2015, Vol. 19, 55-63. doi:10.1044/hhd19.2.55
History: Received August 5, 2015; Revised September 14, 2015; Accepted September 22, 2015

There are an increasing number of large-scale studies on the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hearing loss; these studies include both HIV-infected adults from horizontal disease transmission to HIV-infected children from vertical disease transmission in utero. With advances in HIV treatment approaches, this disease has become a chronic health condition rather than a terminal health condition. Based on recent data in this area, mechanisms within the auditory system are at risk based on HIV status. HIV-infected children have poorer hearing compared to perinatally exposed to HIV, but uninfected children. HIV-infected children also have poorer hearing compared to HIV-unexposed, uninfected children. HIV-infected adults also have poorer hearing compared with HIV-uninfected adults. Individuals with greater HIV disease severity had poorer hearing than HIV-infected individuals with lesser HIV disease severity. Auditory brainstem response data demonstrate poor waveform morphology, lower peak amplitude, increased peak and interpeak latencies in HIV-infected individuals. Conversely, distortion product otoacoustic emission data are similar for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals status. Taken together, differences in hearing sensitivity based on HIV status may be a result of auditory neural function, although large-scale studies are currently ongoing to further examine these risk factors of HIV on the auditory system.

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